On May 11, 1989, in her will, the sculptor Frosso Efthymiadi-Menegaki bequeathed her movable and immovable property to the National Gallery. On November 8, 1995, the National Gallery Board accepted the bequest, whereby her entire body of work became part of the museum’s collections – sculptures, models, moulds, a large number of preliminary sketches for sculptures, studies for everyday decorative or functional objects, studies for other works, as well as paintings, prints and drawings by other artists; furthermore, a collection of various objects from her travels around the world and her personal archive. This treasure trove of material helps to provide a complete overview of the oeuvre, life and personality of one of the most pre-eminent Greek sculptors – from her youth until her death.

 

Tonia Giannoudaki, Curator of the Sculpture Collection
with Maria Kliafa, Head of The Sculpture Conservation Studio

The bequest

On May 11, 1989, in her handwritten will, Frosso Efthymiadi-Menegaki bequeathed her movable and immovable property to the National Gallery. On November 8, 1995, the National Gallery Board accepted the bequest, through which her sculptures, models, moulds and many preliminary sketches for sculptures joined the museum’s collections; moreover, studies of everyday decorative objects and various other studies. These works provide a complete overview of the artistic creation of one of the most prominent Greek sculptresses, from her student years in Vienna in 1930, to 1971, the date of her last work.

The museum also received paintings, prints and drawings by Yannoulis Chalepas, Mimis Vitsoris, Yannis Tsarouchis, Dimitris Yannoukakis, Takis Marthas, Aristomenis Provelengios, Antonis Polykandriotis, Yanna Persaki, Ira Economidou, Michael O’Connell, Henri Matisse, engravings by Japanese artists, as well as a collection of various objects from her travels around the globe. Furthermore, the artist’s personal archive, including her extensive correspondence in Greek, English, French, German and Spanish, with family, friends, organisations, artists and important personalities with whom she maintained friendly relations. Among them, the writer Nikos Kazantzakis; minister and mayor of Athens Konstantinos Kotzias; her close friend, photographer Voula Papaioannou, who photographed some works; the art critic Tonis Spiteris and his wife, sculptress Ioanna Spiteris; sculptors Michael Lekakis and Costas Coulentianos; the painter Ira Economidou, the director of the New York Museum of Modern Art, Alfred Barr; and artist Vance Kirkland, director of the School of Fine Arts of the University of Denver. Her archive also includes laws and articles of association of entities such as the Hellenic Artists’ Chamber, the Cultural Association of Greek Women, the National Council of Greek Women, the Greek Sculptors’ Association, the Women`s International Art Club. Furthermore, personal photos, as well as photos and slides of almost all of her work, exhibition catalogues, books, newspaper clippings, personal documents, notes and a variety of other items, which help to form a complete picture of the artist’s work, life and personality.

Biography

1911
Frosso Efthymiadi was born on November 11 in Istanbul. She was the daughter of Angelos Efthymiadis and Despina Nicolaides, and had three siblings, Elli, Efi and Mimis.

1922
Her family sought refuge in Athens. Frosso attended the American College for Girls and the French School. She also studied the piano.

1930-1933
Between October 1, 1930 and June 30, 1933, she studied pottery and clay sculpture at the School of Applied Arts of the Austrian Art and Industry Museum (Kunstgewerbeschule des Österreichischen Museums für Kunst und Industrie), later the University of Applied Arts (Universität für Angewandte Kunst), under professors Michael Powolny and Robert Obsieger.

1933
In July, she returned to Greece and established a pottery workshop. She began travelling around Greece, looking for raw material for her work, gathering information and clay samples in many shades and grades. Small plates of many such samples were found in her studio.

1939
Kostas Kotzias, then minister of Capital City Administration, commissioned her to produce glazed or patinated terracotta animals to be installed in public gardens in Athens: the Kifissia, Pangrati, Evangelismos and Paleo Faliro parks, and the squares Eleftherias, Agiou Ioannou (Vouliagmenis), Messolongiou, Ioannou Metaxa (Lenorman), Kyriakou and the corner of Alexandras & Patission streets. Also, squares in Filothei, Psychiko and Glyfada, Pan’s Cave, the Fokionos Negri and Konstantinoupoleos streets. The outbreak of war prevented completion of the project; several pencil drawings for these works were found in the artist’s archive, including mention of their intended location, as well as the draft and copies of the commission contract, signed on June 5, 1939.

1940
She had sculptures installed in the courtyard of the Kifissia Gardening Fair and was awarded a certificate.

1945
In December, she left for Paris with the first group of post-war fellows of the French government.

1946
She studied under Marcel Gimond.

1947
In August, she left for South America, where she had family, in the hope of a career. She brought along more than 80 works and her electric kiln. She first settled in Montevideo and then in Buenos Aires.
During her sojourn, her brother Mimis, who had remained in Vienna after they had completed their studies, and worked as a set designer and cartoonist, drowned in the Danube. Frosso found out of his death much later.

1948
The Greek expatriate Nikos Konialidis acquired her Couple of Roe-Deer and, through the Greek ambassador, Kimon Kollas, donated it to the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes in Buenos Aires. Similarly, the Museo de Bellas Artes de la Boca acquired a Seated Deer. Furthermore, mounting her first solo exhibition and participating in group shows gave her the opportunity to receive private commissions. Her correspondence with her later husband, Manolis Menegakis, indicates that she was eager to make a bust of Eva Perón, but the plan fell through.

She visited Bolivia and Peru to study the Inca civilization and traditional Indian art.

1949
In June, she returned to Greece, since living conditions in South America had proved difficult and possibilities for professional success limited.

She married Manolis Menegakis, a lawyer, who, during her absence had arranged for the construction of their home, designed by Dimitris Pikionis, on 10, Grypari Street in Kypriadou, an area in Athens.

1950
In October, she enrolled at Marcel Gimond’s studio in Académie Julian to pursue further studies in the school year 1950-1951.

1951-1953
She often travelled to Rome, Milan and Paris, mainly to cast works.

1953
She travelled to Morocco.

1954
She became founding member of Greek Women Artists’ Association.

1955
She was elected as vice president of the Greek Women Artists’ Association.

1955, 1956
Travelled to Egypt.

1957
Under an international educational exchange programme, she travelled to the United States as a fellow of the US government to visit museums, art centres and universities, meet with preeminent artists and study contemporary art. During her visit, she also visited Mexico and studied the Mayan culture. When she returned to Greece, she published articles on American museums and sculpture.

1959
A large-scale Ibex was installed in the Emporiki Bank pavilion at the Thessaloniki International Fair.

She travelled to Sao Paulo to participate in the Biennale and visited Peru and Colombia.

1960-1970
She travelled to Japan, India, Thailand, Cambodia, Java, Bali, New York, China, Iraq, Persia, Nepal and India. She also frequently visited Rome and Paris, while she had earlier on visited London, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Spain and Portugal.

1970
In November, as part of the Rhythm and Movement in Art programme at the Hellenic American Union, the choreographer Karen Kanner presented choreographic pieces inspired by the “movement” of Frosso Efthymiadi’s sculpture.

On November 21, her husband, Manolis Menegakis, passed away. His death had a devastating effect on her personally and artistically, putting an end to a remarkable career extending from figuration to abstraction. Since then, her activity as an artist was limited to contributing earlier work to exhibitions.

1973
The large-format book Froso Eftimiadi was published, originally instigated by Manolis Menegakis.

1974
On the occasion of the book publication, on December 28 she was awarded by the Athens Academy for her overall body of work.

1976
She completed a large-scale marble Lot’s Wife, and had it installed on her husband’s grave.

1977
The monograph Froso Eftimiadi was released in Paris, with an essay by Ionel Jianou.

1980
Frosso Efthymiadi was the first woman nominated for Academy of Athens membership for Sculpture. The position was ultimately taken by Yannis Pappas.

1995
Died in Athens on July 22.

Solo exhibitions

1947
Exposition de escultura. Froso Efthymiadi, Galeria Müller, Buenos Aires
See works on display and newspaper clippings.

1948
Calle Florida 846, Buenos Aires

1954
Terracottas. Frosso Efthymiadi-Menegaki, To Vima newspaper exhibition space, Athens
See works on display, newspaper clippings and exhibition photographs.

1955
Frosso Efthymiadi. Sculpture, The Hanover Gallery, London
See works on display and a BBC programme.

1961
Domi S.A. Headquarters, Athens
See works on displaynewspaper clippings and exhibition video.

1962
Athens Technological Institute, Athens
See works on displaynewspaper clippings and exhibition photographs.

Group Exhibitions

1938
Panhellenic Art Exhibition, Zappeion Megaron, Athens
Frosso Efthymiadi won a bronze medal and a cash prize.
See works on display and newspaper clippings.

1939
Panhellenic Art Exhibition, Zappeion Megaron, Athens
See works on display.

New York World’s Fair, Flushing Meadows

International Women. Painters, Sculptors, Gravers, Riverside Museum, New York
The exhibition was organised by the National Council of Women of the United States of America.
See newspaper clippings.

1940
Panhellenic Art Exhibition, Zappeion Megaron, Athens
See works on display.

1941-1944
Professional Art Exhibition, National Archaeological Museum, Athens
See works on display.

1946
Greek-French Youth Association. Paintings, Sculpture, Engraving, French Institute, Athens

1947
International Contemporary Art Fair (Exposition internationale d`art contemporain), Palais de Ghézireh, Cairo
See works on display.

Women`s International Art Club. Contemporary European Women Painters. 45th Annual Exhibition of the Women`s International Art Club, RBA Galleries, London

Greek Art: Painting, Sculpture, Printmaking, Crafts, Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Stockholm (Grekisk konst: måleri, skulptur, grafik, konsthantverk, Kungliga Akademien för de fria konsterna Stockholm)

1948
Casino, Mar del Plata, Argentina
See works on display.

14th International Fair of Livestock, Art exhibition on themes from the countryside (XIVa Exposicion Internacional de Ganaderia, Salon de arte con temas de la campaña), Calle Florida 458, Buenos Aires
The exhibition was organised by the Argentinean Agricultural Union; Frosso Efthymiadi won the prize Adolfo Bullrich y Cia Ltda S.A. for her work Calf.
See works on display.

1951
Greek Women’s Art Exhibition, Efthymiadi-Menegaki’s studio, Athens.
The exhibition was organised during the International Women’s Council Conference.

1952
Panhellenic Art Exhibition, Zappeion Megaron, Athens
See works on display.

1953
Greek Women Artists’ Exhibition, Knossos Art Gallery, Athens

1954
International Architecture Exhibition, Zappeion Megaron, Athens
See works on display and newspaper clippings.

1955
International Ceramics Fair, Cannes
The exhibition was organised in the context of the First International Ceramics Festival. Frosso Efthymiadi garnered a silver award.
See works on displaynewspaper articles and photographs from the exhibition.

Greek Women Artists’ Exhibition, Museum of Contemporary Art, Cairo
See works on display.

1956
International Exhibition of Contemporary Sculpture (Exposition Internationale de Sculpture Contemporaine), Rodin Museum, Paris
See works on display and press clippings.

1957
Panhellenic Art Exhibition, Zappeion Megaron, Athens
See works on display.

Exhibition of Painting, Sculpture, Printmaking by the Greek Women Artists’ Association, Zygos Art Gallery, Athens
See works on display.

1958
Modern-Art Exhibition, Kouros Art Gallery, Athens
See works on display.

1959
Sao Paulo Biennale
Frosso Efthymiadi received honours. Before the Biennale, from May 9 to 13, she had shown her recent work in her studio.
See works on display and newspaper clippings.

1960
Panhellenic Art Exhibition, Zappeion Megaron, Athens
See works on display.

1961
2nd International Exhibition of Contemporary Sculpture (2e Exposition Internationale de Sculpture Contemporaine), Rodin Museum, Paris
See works on display.

1962
Peace-Life, Zygos Art Gallery, Athens
See works on display.

Colorado Collects, Denver Art Museum, Denver, U.S.A.
See works on display.

1963
Panhellenic Art Exhibition, Zappeion Megaron, Athens
See works on display.

Greek Women’s Art Association Exhibition, Parnassos
See works on display.

5th Alexandria Biennale
See works on display.

1964-1965
New York World’s Fair, Flushing Meadows
See works on displaynewspaper articles and photographs from the exhibition.

1965
Panhellenic Art Exhibition, Zappeion Megaron, Athens
See works on display.

Froso Eftimiadi, Greek Sculptress, Galerie des Deux Mondes, John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York
See works on display.

First International Sculpture Exhibition. “Panathenaea of Contemporary Sculpture”, Hill of the Muses – Filopappou, Athens
See works on display.

1966
Greek Artists’ Exhibition, Hellenic-American Union, Athens
See works on display.

1967
Greek Women’s Art Association, Techni Macedonian Art Society, Thessaloniki
See works on display.

Panhellenic Art Exhibition, Zappeion Megaron, Athens
See works on display.

1968
XXe Salon de la Jeune Sculpture, Palais Royal, Paris
See works on display.

1969
Greek Women’s Art Association Exhibition, Kennedy Hall, Hellenic-American Union, Athens
See works on display.

XXIe Salon de la Jeune Sculpture, Palais Royal, Paris
See works on display.

1972
Outdoor Sculpture Exhibition, Apollonio Community, Porto Rafti
See works on display.

1975
Panhellenic Art Exhibition, Zappeion Megaron, Athens
See works on display.

1979
Contemporary Sculpture. First Greek Sculptors’ Association Exhibition, Athens Conservatory, Athens
See works on display.

1980
Relief Exhibition, Greek Sculptors’ Association, Athens Conservatory, Athens

1981
Miniature Sculpture Exhibition, Greek Sculptors’ Association, Athens Conservatory, Athens
See works on display.

Sculpture ‘81. 3rd Outdoor Exhibition, Greek Sculptors’ Association, Athens Conservatory, Athens
See works on display.

1982
4th Outdoor Sculpture Exhibition, Greek Sculptors’ Association, Athens Conservatory, Athens
See works on display.

1983
5th Outdoor Sculpture Exhibition, Greek Sculptors’ Association, Athens Conservatory, Athens
See works on display.

Sculpture Exhibition, Greek Sculptors’ Association, Larissa
See works on display.

1984
The Nude. Sculpture-Drawings, Greek Sculptors’ Association, Athens Conservatory, Athens
See works on display.

1985
6th Outdoor Sculpture Exhibition, Greek Sculptors’ Association, Athens Conservatory, Athens
See works on display.

Reminiscences, Transformations, Quests. Painting, Sculpture, Engraving, Athens Conservatory, Athens
See works on display.

Sculpture ‘85, Greek Sculptors’ Association, Municipality of Paleo Faliro, Plateia Iroou, Floisvos, Paleo Faliro
See works on display.

1987
Panhellenic Art Exhibition, Piraeus Port Authority Exhibition Centre, Piraeus
See works on display.

Sculpture in the Attic Light, Korai pedestrian street, Athens
See works on display.

1988
Institut Français d’Athènes. 50 Years 1938-1988. 22 Greek Artists Former Fellows of the French Government, Kostis Palamas Building, Athens
See works on display.

 

Works

Navigate to the topics and discover the works of Frosso Efthymiadi.

Frosso Eythimiadi – Menegaki

Ceramic Works

Frosso Efthymiadi studied pottery in Vienna and worked exclusively with terracotta until the mid-1950s. In this context, she became extensively involved with producing various decorative or functional objects, such as garden pottery, hanging and portable flower vases with relief decoration, plates for wall hanging and vases, lampshades, candlesticks, lamps, cups, teapots, as well as statuettes for home and office decoration. Of these items, the oldest of which date back to the artist’s student years (1930-1933), the National Gallery collection received plates, but mostly vases, painted with stylised images, or geometric patterns, sometimes adorned with embossed or engraved designs. In an interview to Dimis Apostolopoulos for «Ώρα τέχνης και επιστήμης» (Art and Science Hour) radio show on December 16, 1954, the sculptress explained her reasons for choosing these kinds of objects: «II love the subject of Water-Jars, both because even now they have not disappeared from everyday use in our country and because they have a functional shape that offers endless possibilities for producing many different forms – human figures, birds, animals». An interesting elaboration of this early work is the inventive Water-Jar Figures, made in the early 1950s, which aptly combine the female body with the form of the jug.

Cock (Wall Lamp)

terracotta, height 50 cm.

inv.no. 11704

Decorative plate with Cock, c. 1932

painted terracotta, diam. 15 cm.

inv.no 11698

Decorative plate with Mermaid, c. 1932

painted terracotta, diam. 20 cm.

inv.no 1169

Plate, c. 1932

painted terracotta, diam 20 cm.

inv.no 11700

Decorative plate, after 1949

terracotta, diam. 34 cm.

inv.no 9127

Vase with Horses in Relief, 1930-1933

glazed terracotta, 30X27X27 cm.

inv.no 11695

Vase with Horses in Relief, 1930-1933

glazed terracotta, 30X27X27 cm.

inv.no 11695

Jug Decorated with Fish, before 1954

terracotta, 29Χ21Χ18,5 cm.

inv.no. 9231

Jug Decorated with Fish, before 1954

terracotta, 29Χ21Χ18,5 cm.

inv.no. 9231

Wall Vase, before 1937

terracotta, height 35 cm., diam. 13,5 cm.

inv.no. 9206

Vase, before 1948

terracotta, height 65 cm., diam. 36,5 cm.

inv.no. 9112

Vase, 1949

painted terracotta, 39Χ27,5Χ20,5 cm.

inv.no. 9062

Vase, 1949

painted terracotta, 39Χ27,5Χ20,5 cm.

inv.no. 9062

Vase, 1949

painted terracotta, 39Χ27,5Χ20,5 cm.

inv.no. 9062

Vase

terracotta, height 12 cm., diam. 23,5 cm.

inv.no. 9128

Vase with 18 handles, before 1948

terracotta, 16Χ25Χ25 cm.

inv.no. 9180

Vase, after 1949

terracotta, height 16 cm., diam. 16 cm.

inv.no. 9124

Jug, 1952

terracotta, 21Χ18Χ16,5 cm.

inv.no. 9123

Jug, 1952

terracotta, 21Χ18Χ16,5 cm.

inv.no. 9123

Jug, after 1949

painted terracotta, 26Χ22,5Χ25,5 cm.

inv.no. 9182

Jug, after 1949

painted terracotta, 26Χ22,5Χ25,5 cm.

inv.no. 9182

Jug, after 1949

painted terracotta, 26Χ22,5Χ25,5 cm.

inv.no. 9182

Jug, after 1949

terracotta, 27Χ20Χ18,5 cm.

inv.no. 9122

Jug, after 1949

terracotta, 27Χ20Χ18,5 cm.

inv.no. 9122

Churn, after 1949

terracotta, 22Χ17,5Χ5 cm.

inv.no. 9121

Jug, 1952 or 1953

terracotta, 34,5Χ22Χ22,5 cm.

inv.no. 9181

Jug, 1952 or 1953

terracotta, 34,5Χ22Χ22,5 cm.

inv.no. 9181

Water-Jar Figure, 1954

terracotta, 31Χ20Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9061

Water-Jar Figure, 1954

terracotta, 31Χ20Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9061

Water-Jar Figure, 1954

terracotta, 31Χ20Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9061

Water-Jar Figure, 1954

terracotta, 62Χ32Χ24,5 cm.

inv.no 9063

Water-Jar Figure, 1954

terracotta, 62Χ32Χ24,5 cm.

inv.no 9063

Water-Jar Figure, 1954

terracotta, 62Χ32Χ24,5 cm.

inv.no 9063

Water-Jar Figure, after 1951

terracotta, 67,5Χ34,5Χ17,5 εκ.

inv.no. 9120

Water-Jar Figure, after 1951

terracotta, 67,5Χ34,5Χ17,5 εκ.

inv.no. 9120

Figure

terracotta, 27Χ15Χ6,5 cm.

inv.no 9095

Animals

Alongside ceramics, since her student years Frosso Efthymiadi also pursued sculpture, working on specific topics, such as animals, birds, figures and busts. A special place among these topics is held by animals and birds, small- or large-scale, which makes her unique among Greek sculptors in working so extensively with animal forms. Her love for these subjects, as well as her use of terracotta until the mid-1950s, stems from her perception of the intention and function of sculpture, which she describes in an interview to Dimis Apostolopoulos for «Ώρα τέχνης και επιστήμης» (Art and Science Hour) radio show on December 16, 1954: «… My aim is not monumental sculpture but art that accompanies people in their everyday life – something I think is missing in Greece.». This is why she renders animals realistically, in casual poses, stressing their light-hearted, cute nature by soft modelling. Small-scale works were intended for interior decoration, as she felt that, «Terracotta sculpture is particularly suitable to the current perceptions of home decoration». Large-scale works were mainly intended for private gardens, or public spaces: «I do love themes suitable for garden decoration, and think that animals are most suitable for this. As you can see, all my animals – goat, donkey, calf, deer and horse – are realistically modelled, as dictated by their intended use. I sought to capture each animal’s characteristic movement and expression. In fact, I had to bring a live model to my studio each time. I let it run in my garden. …». For instance, for Pan and Baby Lamb, she borrowed a lamb from the neighbourhood; the model for Pan was Greek architect Pikionis’ son Tassos. Photos of animals that she used as models, such as the donkey employed for Baby Donkey were found in her photographic archive.

In 1939, Kostas Kotzias, then minister of Capital Administration, commissioned her to produce glazed or patinated terracotta animals to be installed in public gardens in Athens: Kifissia, Pangrati, Evangelismos and Paleo Faliro parks; Eleftherias, Agiou Ioannou (Vouliagmenis), Messolongiou, Ioannou Metaxa (Lenorman), Kyriakou squares and Alexandras & Patission street corner. Also, squares in Filothei, Psychiko and Glyfada, Pan’s Cave, and the Fokionos Negri and Konstantinoupoleos streets. The outbreak of war prevented the project from materialising; however, several pencil drawings were found in her archive. Other works planned for these locations were also KidSeated Donkey and Boy on a Dolphin, which was designed as a fountain. In 1940, she decorated with sculptures the Kifissia Gardening Fair and was awarded a certificate; she installed Pan with LambKid and Seated Donkey in her home garden.

Her interest in animals, however, faded in the mid-1950s. Having made in 1951 the small-scale terracottas Animals of the Andes – stylised evocations of llamas of South America, which she transferred, three years later, to large-scale casts and forged iron – in 1955 she completed the series with Ibex, a stylised , abstract and quite decorative version of a wild goat, which was but a nearly identical version of an early work in terracotta.

Kid, c. 1937

glazed terracotta , 38,5Χ29,5Χ15 cm.

inv.no. 9089

Kid, c. 1937

glazed terracotta , 38,5Χ29,5Χ15 cm.

inv.no. 9089

Kid, c. 1937

glazed terracotta , 38,5Χ29,5Χ15 cm.

inv.no. 9089

Kid, c. 1938

terracotta, 36Χ28Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 9107

Kid, c. 1938

terracotta, 36Χ28Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 9107

Kid, c. 1938

terracotta, 36Χ28Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 9107

Kid, c.1938

bronze, 88Χ26Χ66 cm.

inv.no 9044

Kid, c.1938

bronze, 88Χ26Χ66 cm.

inv.no 9044

Kid, c.1938

bronze, 88Χ26Χ66 cm.

inv.no 9044

Seated donkey, 1939

terracotta, 59,5Χ85Χ42 cm.

inv.no. 9043

Seated donkey, 1939

terracotta, 59,5Χ85Χ42 cm.

inv.no. 9043

Seated donkey, 1939

terracotta, 59,5Χ85Χ42 cm.

inv.no. 9043

Baby Donkey, after 1937

terracotta, 40Χ33,5Χ12,5 cm.

inv.no. 9136/b

Baby Donkey, after 1937

terracotta, 40Χ33,5Χ12,5 cm.

inv.no. 9136/b

Baby Donkey, after 1937

terracotta, 40Χ33,5Χ12,5 cm.

inv.no. 9136/b

Baby Donkey, after 1937

bronze, 35Χ26Χ8,5 cm.

inv.no. 9136

Baby Donkey, after 1937

bronze, 35Χ26Χ8,5 cm.

inv.no. 9136

Baby Donkey, after 1937

bronze, 35Χ26Χ8,5 cm.

inv.no. 9136

Baby Donkey, after 1940

bronze, 107Χ81Χ22 cm.

inv.no. 9135

Foal, after 1940

bronze, 82Χ100Χ40 cm.

inv.no 9111

Calf, c. 1939

terracotta, 11Χ23Χ10,5 cm.

inv.no 9105

Calf, c. 1939

terracotta, 11Χ23Χ10,5 cm.

inv.no 9105

Calf, c. 1939

terracotta, 11Χ23Χ10,5 cm.

inv.no 9105

Calf, after 1948

bronze, 75,5Χ90Χ35 cm.

inv.no 9047

Sea Lion, 1940 or 1941

glazed terracotta, 14Χ15,5Χ20 cm.

inv.no. 11702

Baby Deer, 1930-1933

glazed terracotta , 16,5Χ21Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 11701

Roe with her Young, 1939-1940

terracotta, 36Χ25Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 9073

Roe with her Young, 1939-1940

terracotta, 36Χ25Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 9073

Roe with her Young, 1939-1940

terracotta, 36Χ25Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 9073

Couple of Roe-Deer, c. 1940

terracotta, 49Χ87Χ50 cm.

inv.no. 9046/α

Couple of Roe-Deer, c. 1940

terracotta, 49Χ87Χ50 cm.

inv.no. 9046/α

Couple of Roe-Deer, c. 1940

terracotta, 49Χ87Χ50 cm.

inv.no. 9046/α

Couple of Roe-Deer, c. 1940

terracotta, 49Χ87Χ50 cm.

inv.no. 9046/α

Couple of Roe-Deer, c. 1940

terracotta, 49Χ87Χ50 cm.

inv.no. 9046/α

Animals of the Andes, 1951

terracotta, 30,5Χ24Χ8,5 cm.

inv.no. 9072

Animals of the Andes, 1951

terracotta, 30,5Χ24Χ8,5 cm.

inv.no. 9072

Animals of the Andes, 1951

terracotta, 30,5Χ24Χ8,5 cm.

inv.no. 9072

Animals of the Andes, 1954

hammered iron, 120Χ98Χ34 cm.

inv.no 9053

Animals of the Andes, 1954

hammered iron, 120Χ98Χ34 cm.

inv.no 9053

Ibex, 1955

bronze, 74Χ41Χ24 cm.

inv.no 9148

Ibex, after 1955

iron, 151,5Χ41,5Χ80,5 cm.

inv.no 9195

Ibex, after 1955

iron, 151,5Χ41,5Χ80,5 cm.

inv.no 9195

Ibex, after 1955

iron, 151,5Χ41,5Χ80,5 cm.

inv.no 9195

Ibex, after 1955

iron, 151,5Χ41,5Χ80,5 cm.

inv.no 9195

Birds

Frosso Efthymiadi studied pottery and sculpture and since her student years worked on specific topics, such as animals, birds, figures and busts. Among them, birds enjoy prime of place, having kept her undiminished interest from her early years to the late 1960s, when her creative career came to a close. The choice of these subjects, as well as of the medium of terracotta until the mid-1950s, reflects her perception of the purpose and function of sculpture, which she describes in an interview to Dimis Apostolopoulos for «Ώρα τέχνης και επιστήμης» (Art and Science Hour) radio show on December 16, 1954: «…My aim is not monumental sculpture but art that accompanies people in their everyday life – something I think is missing in Greece». Small-scale works were intended for interior decoration, as the artist felt that, «terracotta (…) lends itself very nicely to current interior decoration trends».

Unlike other thematic series, Birds are primarily characterised by abstraction and stylisation inspired by a variety of models; they are determined, however, also by their ornamental character. This is most evident in her earliest terracottas, as well as in the series of Cocks and Owls, also characteristically static. After the mid-1950s, abstraction and stylisation intensified, while terracotta is replaced by metal. A characteristic series is Eagles, which elaborates, in compositions of latent movement, on the dynamic, majestic effect of opened wings, the artist working with either solid surfaces or hammered sheets and rods that combine full and empty parts. From 1960 on, moreover, she produced solid, seemingly static compositions, such as Winged ChiefAngry OwlNight BirdMinerva, inspired by the technique of golden jewellery with densely collated rods that she had seen in her travels in Peru and Colombia in 1959; starting with Bird, with its distinctively dynamic movement in space, in the 1960s, reduction verged on abstraction in works such as PheasantWounded BirdRisingFirst Flight.
On the other hand, the preliminary sketches for several art works made of thin iron rods, the finished works being in forged bronze, iron or brass, provide a more complete understanding of the creative process.

Pigeon, 1930-1933

terracotta, 9Χ13,5Χ8,5 cm.

inv.no. 9060

Birds, 1943

terracotta, 15,5Χ12,5Χ10 cm.

inv. no. 9097

Birds, 1943

terracotta, 15,5Χ12,5Χ10 cm.

inv. no. 9097

Cock, before 1947

terracotta, 14,5Χ7Χ11,5 cm.

inv.no. 9210

Cock, before 1947

terracotta, 14,5Χ7Χ11,5 cm.

inv.no. 9210

Owl (bookend), before 1947

terracotta, 13Χ12Χ9,2 cm.

inv.no. 9058

Owl (bookend), before 1947

terracotta, 13Χ12Χ9,2 cm.

inv.no. 9058

Pheasant, before 1954

painted terracotta, 20Χ59Χ13 cm.

inv.no. 9185

Cock (Wall decoration), 1954

painted terracotta, 59,5Χ55,5Χ2 cm.

inv.no. 9184

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 45,5Χ41Χ10 cm.

inv.no. 9069

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 45,5Χ41Χ10 cm.

inv.no. 9069

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 45,5Χ41Χ10 cm.

inv.no. 9069

Cock, 1953

terracotta, 50Χ34,5Χ9 cm.

inv.no. 9064

Cock, 1953

terracotta, 50Χ34,5Χ9 cm.

inv.no. 9064

Cock, 1953

terracotta, 50Χ34,5Χ9 cm.

inv.no. 9064

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 41,5Χ46,5Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 9065

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 41,5Χ46,5Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 9065

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 41,5Χ46,5Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 9065

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 43Χ51,5Χ12,5 cm.

inv.no. 9196

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 43Χ51,5Χ12,5 cm.

inv.no. 9196

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 43Χ35Χ10 cm.

inv.no. 9068

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 43Χ35Χ10 cm.

inv.no. 9068

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 45Χ42,5Χ13 cm.

inv.no. 9066

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 45Χ42,5Χ13 cm.

inv.no. 9066

Cock, after 1954

hammered iron, 43Χ44Χ9 cm.

inv.no. 9188

Cock, after 1954

hammered iron, 43Χ44Χ9 cm.

inv.no. 9188

Cock, after 1954

hammered iron, 43Χ44Χ9 cm.

inv.no. 9188

Cock, after 1954

hammered iron, 43Χ44Χ9 cm.

inv.no. 9188

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 37,5Χ44Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9067

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 37,5Χ44Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9067

Cock, after 1954

hammered iron, 38Χ43Χ9 cm.

inv.no. 9189

Cock, after 1954

hammered iron, 38Χ43Χ9 cm.

inv.no. 9189

Cock, after 1954

hammered iron, 38Χ43Χ9 cm.

inv.no. 9189

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 53Χ41,5Χ13 cm.

inv.no. 9207

Cock, before 1954

terracotta, 53Χ41,5Χ13 cm.

inv.no. 9207

Owl, before 1959

hammered iron and welded brass, 33Χ19Χ15 cm.

inv.no. 9141

Owl, before 1959

hammered iron and welded brass, 33Χ19Χ15 cm.

inv.no. 9141

Owl, before 1959

iron, 26Χ38Χ24,5 cm.

inv.no. 9082/α

Owl, before 1959

hammered iron and welded copper, 26Χ40,5Χ27 cm.

inv.no 9082

Owl, before 1959

hammered iron and welded copper, 26Χ40,5Χ27 cm.

inv.no 9082

Owl, before 1959

hammered iron and welded copper, 26Χ40,5Χ27 cm.

inv.no 9082

Owl, 1960

iron, 18,5Χ39Χ24 cm.

inv.no. 9142/α

Owl, 1960

hammered iron and welded copper, 17Χ39Χ25 cm.

inv.no. 9142

Owl, 1960

hammered iron and welded copper, 17Χ39Χ25 cm.

inv.no. 9142

Owl, 1960

hammered iron and welded copper, 17Χ39Χ25 cm.

inv.no. 9142

Owl, 1960

hammered iron and welded copper, 17Χ39Χ25 cm.

inv.no. 9142

Angry Owl, after 1959

iron, 18Χ41,5Χ20 cm.

inv.no 9083/α

Angry Owl, after 1959

hammered copper, 18Χ42Χ25 cm.

inv.no. 9083

Angry Owl, after 1959

hammered copper, 18Χ42Χ25 cm.

inv.no. 9083

Angry Owl, after 1959

hammered copper, 18Χ42Χ25 cm.

inv.no. 9083

Nightbird, 1961

iron, 28,5Χ86Χ25 cm.

inv.no 9084/α

Nightbird, 1961

hammered brass, 28Χ86Χ22 cm.

inv.no 9084

Nightbird, 1961

hammered brass, 28Χ86Χ22 cm.

inv.no 9084

Nightbird, 1961

hammered brass, 28Χ86Χ22 cm.

inv.no 9084

Minerva, 1961

hammered copper, 36Χ33Χ16 cm.

inv. no 9143

Minerva, 1961

hammered copper, 36Χ33Χ16 cm.

inv. no 9143

Minerva, 1961

hammered copper, 36Χ33Χ16 cm.

inv. no 9143

Minerva, 1961

bronze, 36,5Χ35,5Χ17,5 cm.

inv. no 9144

Minerva, 1961

bronze, 36,5Χ35,5Χ17,5 cm.

inv. no 9144

Minerva, 1961

bronze, 36,5Χ35,5Χ17,5 cm.

inv. no 9144

Owl`s Head

copper, 9Χ12,5Χ4 cm.

inv.no. 9088

Owl`s Head, before 1963

hammered iron, 58Χ64Χ26 cm.

inv.no. 9140

Eagle

hammered iron, 46Χ41Χ18 cm.

inv.no. 9172

Eagle

hammered iron, 46Χ41Χ18 cm.

inv.no. 9172

Eagle

hammered iron, 46Χ41Χ18 cm.

inv.no. 9172

Eagle, 1956-1957

hammered iron, 100Χ95Χ59 cm.

inv. no. 9049

Eagle, 1956-1957

hammered iron, 100Χ95Χ59 cm.

inv. no. 9049

Eagle, 1956-1957

hammered iron, 100Χ95Χ59 cm.

inv. no. 9049

Eagle, 1956-1957

hammered iron, 100Χ95Χ59 cm.

inv. no. 9049

Eagle II, 1960

iron, 127Χ91Χ33,5 cm.

inv. no. 9154/α

Eagle ΙΙ, 1960

hammered brass, 125Χ89Χ33 cm.

inv. no. 9154

Bird

iron, 47Χ46Χ20 cm

inv.no 9173

Bird

iron, 47Χ46Χ20 cm

inv.no 9173

Bird

iron, 47Χ46Χ20 cm

inv.no 9173

Winged Chief, 1960

hammered brass, 116Χ75Χ23 cm.

inv.no. 9145

Winged Chief, 1960

hammered brass, 116Χ75Χ23 cm.

inv.no. 9145

Winged Chief, 1960

iron, 109Χ94Χ23 cm.

inv.no. 9145/α

Birds, 1955

bronze, 39,5Χ23,5Χ14 cm.

inv. no. 9081/α

Birds, 1955

bronze, 39,5Χ23,5Χ14 cm.

inv. no. 9081/α

Birds, 1955

bronze, 39,5Χ23,5Χ14 cm.

inv. no. 9081/α

Birds (Dialogue), before 1972

hammered brass, 118Χ67Χ34 cm.

inv.no 9050

Bird, c. 1959

hammered brass, 64,5Χ60,5Χ26 cm.

inv.no 9191

Bird, c. 1959

iron, 115Χ113,5Χ31 cm.

inv.no 9153/α

Bird, c. 1959

iron, 115Χ113,5Χ31 cm.

inv.no 9153/α

Bird, c. 1959

hammered brass, 126,5Χ113,5Χ38 cm.

inv.no 9153

Bird, c. 1959

hammered brass, 126,5Χ113,5Χ38 cm.

inv.no 9153

Wounded Bird, 1962

iron, 24Χ56Χ30 cm.

inv.no 9164/α

Wounded Bird, 1962

hammered brass, 24Χ56Χ25 cm.

inv.no 9164

Wounded Bird, 1962

hammered brass, 24Χ56Χ25 cm.

inv.no 9164

Wounded Bird, 1962

hammered brass, 24Χ56Χ25 cm.

inv.no 9164

Rising, 1968

iron, 59Χ35Χ15 cm.

inv no. 9163/α

Rising, 1968

hammered brass, 58Χ37Χ16 cm.

inv no.9163

Rising, 1968

hammered brass, 58Χ37Χ16 cm.

inv no.9163

First Flight

hammered brass, 57Χ35Χ14 cm.

inv.no 9093

Pheasant, after 1960

hammered brass, 34Χ90Χ22 cm.

inv no. 9146

Pheasant, after 1960

iron, 18,5Χ45Χ10 cm.

inv.no. 11709

Busts

Since her student years and until around 1955, Frosso Efthymiadi produced busts, some in terracotta and some cast in bronze. The sitters are usually her friends, or persons from the artist’s inner or outer social circle. Modelled in a realistic vein, these busts reflect an interest in psychological insights, acknowledged by the artist in an interview to Dimis Apostolopoulos for «Ώρα τέχνης και επιστήμης» (Art and Science Hour) radio show on December 16, 1954: «… In addition to the sitter’s characteristic features, the artist must capture and convey the person’s inner world. It is not always easy, you know, because, in this case, the, usually complex, personality requires individuality of expression. That is why in busts I avoid a lot of abstraction, and in some busts I think we need to maintain a certain documentation».

In the collection of the National Gallery there are two busts of the writer Nikos Kazantzakis, the older of which was made on Aegina in 1937; busts of the archaeologist Gabriel Welter, who carried out excavations on Aegina, of the architect Dimitris Pikionis, of the writer Stratis Myrivilis, of the mayor of Athens Kostas Kotzias and Dimitris Galanis’ grand-daughter, Catherine; the Japanese Girl is Kazuko Watanabe, daughter of Νobuo Watanabe, the Japanese ambassador, with whose family the artist was on friendly terms and corresponded until 1989.

Some of the busts exist in more than one copy. Some belong to the sitters’ families, such as Japanese Girl and Kostas Kotzias’ bust; others have been installed in outdoor or indoor sites, for instance Gabriel Welter’s bust, which was installed on Aegina in 1938, or one of the Nikos Kazantzakis’ busts, in the eponymous museum on Crete.

In the sculptress’s studio were also found one copy each of the Japanese Girl and Girl from Mykonos on terracotta, with hand-painted features, as, after 1950, Frosso Efthymiadi experimented with hand-painting certain works, most of which had been made in previous years.

The Archaeologist Gabriel Welter, c. 1938

terracotta, 34,5Χ20Χ26 cm.

inv. no. 9234

The Archaeologist Gabriel Welter, c. 1938

terracotta, 34,5Χ20Χ26 cm.

inv. no. 9234

The Archaeologist Gabriel Welter, c. 1938

terracotta, 34,5Χ20Χ26 cm.

inv. no. 9234

Lord Byron

terracotta, 36Χ22,5Χ28,5 cm.

inv.no. 9235

Lord Byron

terracotta, 36Χ22,5Χ28,5 cm.

inv.no. 9235

Lord Byron

terracotta, 36Χ22,5Χ28,5 cm.

inv.no. 9235

The Architect Dimitris Pikionis, 1941

terracotta, 31Χ22Χ27 cm.

inv.no 9101

The Architect Dimitris Pikionis, 1941

terracotta, 31Χ22Χ27 cm.

inv.no 9101

The Architect Dimitris Pikionis, 1941

terracotta, 31Χ22Χ27 cm.

inv.no 9101

The Writer Nikos Kazantzakis, 1947

terracotta, 31Χ20,5Χ25 cm

inv.no 9102

The Writer Nikos Kazantzakis, 1947

terracotta, 31Χ20,5Χ25 cm

inv.no 9102

The Writer Nikos Kazantzakis, 1947

terracotta, 31Χ20,5Χ25 cm

inv.no 9102

The Writer Nikos Kazantzakis, 1947

terracotta, 31Χ20,5Χ25 cm

inv.no 9102

The Writer Stratis Myrivilis, c. 1943

terracotta, 35Χ18Χ27 cm.

inv.no 9209

The Writer Stratis Myrivilis, c. 1943

terracotta, 35Χ18Χ27 cm.

inv.no 9209

The Writer Stratis Myrivilis, c. 1943

terracotta, 35Χ18Χ27 cm.

inv.no 9209

The Mayor of Athens Kostas Kotzias, before 1952

terracotta, 35,5Χ24Χ24,5 cm.

inv.no 9236

The Mayor of Athens Kostas Kotzias, before 1952

terracotta, 35,5Χ24Χ24,5 cm.

inv.no 9236

The Mayor of Athens Kostas Kotzias, before 1952

terracotta, 35,5Χ24Χ24,5 cm

inv.no 9236

Man`s head

terracotta, 36,5Χ19Χ26,5 cm.

inv.no. 9238

Man`s head

terracotta, 36,5Χ19Χ26,5 cm.

inv.no. 9238

Man`s head

terracotta, 36,5Χ19Χ26,5 cm.

inv.no. 9238

Man`s head

terracotta, 36,5Χ19Χ26,5 cm.

inv.no. 9238

Aliki R. c. 1943

terracotta, 28Χ22,5Χ24,5 cm.

inv. no. 9079

Aliki R., c. 1943

terracotta, 28Χ22,5Χ24,5 cm.

inv. no. 9079

Aliki R., c. 1943

terracotta, 28Χ22,5Χ24,5 cm.

inv. no. 9079

Catherine (granddaughter of the Greek artist Dimitrios Galanis), 1946

terracotta, 26Χ16Χ20 cm.

inv.no. 9103

Catherine (granddaughter of the Greek artist Dimitrios Galanis), 1946

terracotta, 26Χ16Χ20 cm.

inv.no. 9103

Catherine (granddaughter of the Greek artist Dimitrios Galanis), 1946

terracotta, 26Χ16Χ20 cm.

inv.no. 9103

Catherine (granddaughter of the Greek artist Dimitrios Galanis), 1946

terracotta, 26Χ16Χ20 cm.

inv.no. 9103

Japanese Girl (Kazuko Watanabe), c. 1938

terracotta, 24Χ16Χ18 cm.

inv.no. 9104

Japanese Girl (Kazuko Watanabe), c. 1938

terracotta, 24Χ16Χ18 cm.

inv.no. 9104

Japanese Girl (Kazuko Watanabe), c. 1938

terracotta, 24Χ16Χ18 cm.

inv.no. 9104

Japanese Girl (Kazuko Watanabe), c. 1938

terracotta, 24Χ16Χ18 cm.

inv.no. 9104

Japanese Girl (Kazuko Watanabe), after 1938

painted terracotta, 23Χ16Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9104/α

Japanese Girl (Kazuko Watanabe), after 1938

painted terracotta, 23Χ16Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9104/α

Girl from Mykonos, after 1939

painted terracotta 29Χ20Χ21,5 cm.

inv.no 9239

Girl from Mykonos, after 1939

painted terracotta 29Χ20Χ21,5 cm.

inv.no 9239

Girl from Mykonos, after 1939

painted terracotta 29Χ20Χ21,5 cm.

inv.no 9239

Mermaids and Sea Themes

The most frequently encountered mythological theme in Frosso Efthymiadi’s works is the mermaid. The earliest example is Mermaid with Fish, a realistic terracotta intended for outdoor use, which can be seen on the patio in photographs of the house. Boy on a Dolphin, respectively, which was designed as a fountain, was intended for public installation in Athens, as in 1939 Kostas Kotzias had commissioned from the artist works to be installed in public gardens and squares of the capital city.

Smaller-scale mermaids were intended for indoor placement. Similarly to other small-scale terracottas, they express the sculptress’s desire for «an art that accompanies people in their daily lives» and reflect her belief that «terracotta sculpture is particularly well-suited to the current perceptions about home decoration». Characterised by bold simplification and stylisation, they echo folk pictorial models. They are sculpted in the round, or almost flat, often fully frontal, with a single or double tail, either bent back or to the side of the suspended body, or even curved, extending gracefully, long and lithe; on other occasions, flanking the body in a more rigid, stylised, static rendering.

Boy on a Dolphin, c. 1938

terracotta, 22Χ20Χ10,5 cm.

inv.no 9227

Boy on a Dolphin, c. 1938

terracotta, 22Χ20Χ10,5 cm.

inv.no 9227

Boy on a Dolphin, c. 1938

terracotta, 22Χ20Χ10,5 cm.

inv.no 9227

Boy on a Dolphin, c. 1938

terracotta, 22Χ20Χ10,5 cm.

inv.no 9227

Boy on a Dolphin, 1941

terracotta, 95Χ30Χ83 cm.

inv.no 9100

Mermaid, early 1940`s

terracotta, 55,5Χ37Χ3 cm.

inv. no. 9114

Mermaid, early 1940`s

terracotta, 18,5Χ33Χ13 cm.

inv. no. 9094

Mermaid, early 1940`s

terracotta, 18,5Χ33Χ13 cm.

inv. no. 9094

Mermaid, early 1940`s

terracotta, 58Χ54,5Χ13 cm.

inv. no. 9113

Mermaid, 1950`s

bronze, 30Χ13Χ8,5 cm.

inv.no. 9212/α

Mermaid, 1955

bronze, 41Χ33Χ14 cm.

inv.no. 9080

Mermaid, 1955

bronze, 41Χ33Χ14 cm.

inv.no. 9080

Mermaid, 1955

bronze, 41Χ33Χ14 cm.

inv.no. 9080

Hippocampus, c. 1942

terracotta, 41,5Χ11Χ18,5 cm.

inv.no. 9248

Figures

Alongside pottery, since her student years Frosso Efthymiadi also pursued sculpture, working on specific themes, such as animals, birds, figures and busts. Her choice of subjects and use of terracotta until the mid-1950s reflects her perception of the intended role and function of sculpture, which she describes in an interview to Dimis Apostolopoulos for Ώρα τέχνης και επιστήμης (Art and Science Hour) radio show on December 16, 1954: … My aim is not monumental sculpture but art that accompanies people in their everyday life – something I think is missing in Greece. Furthermore, terracotta sculpture is particularly well-suited to the current perceptions of home decoration.

Figures, female in their majority, are among her most characteristic themes. They started from small-scale, decorative compositions and a series of Girls (Kores), simple everyday presences, often in a contemplative posture, which seeks to convey a romantic mood and emphasise feminine grace and finesse; moreover, stark presences that echo ancient models, such as Girl with Dove and Girl with Water Jar. During the same period, she also did nudes, some of which echo Aristide Maillol’s small-scale terracottas, as well as female dancers. After 1950, moreover, seeking to achieve a different effect, she began experimenting with hand-painting of sculptures, most of which had been produced in previous years. This experimentation did not last long; in her interview to Dimis Apostolopoulos in 1954, she remarked on the challenges: It was very common for the ancient Greeks, of course; for us, however, it presents a very complex challenge. My painted figure you see here is very elaborate, so as to be suitable for painting, as it is extremely risky to paint a realistically modelled figure.

Efthymiadi’s involvement with Girls and Nudes lasted from her student years in 1930-1933 to the early 1950s. In the early 1950s, she made a dramatic stylistic shift towards a very abstract direction. This shift first manifested itself in everyday women`s evocations in terracotta inspired by her travels in North Africa. Thus, realism was succeeded by a simplified, highly stylised, or suggestive rendering of the figures, in compositions such as the two Moroccan FiguresMother and ChildMoroccan Figures and Women of Luxor, where the stylised djellabas envelop the void that evokes the body. Similar in style, Greek Shepherds are three totally sketchy yet still recognisable figures with crooks, in which the diamond-shaped capes envelop the void that, here too, evokes the body.

Three Figures (Music, Song, Dance), 1940

terracotta, 16Χ10Χ10 cm, 18Χ9,5Χ9,5 cm, 14,5Χ9,5Χ9,5 cm.

inv.no 9055, 9056, 9057

Seated Girl, before 1947

terracotta, 19Χ20,5Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9106

Seated Girl, before 1947

terracotta, 19Χ20,5Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9106

Seated Girl, before 1947

terracotta, 19Χ20,5Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9106

Seated Girl, before 1947

terracotta, 19Χ20,5Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9106

Seated Girl, before 1947

terracotta, 17Χ19,5Χ9,5 cm.

inv.no. 9109

Seated Girl, before 1947

terracotta, 17Χ19,5Χ9,5 cm.

inv.no. 9109

Seated Girl, before 1947

terracotta, 17Χ19,5Χ9,5 cm.

inv.no. 9109

Seated Girl, before 1947

terracotta, 17Χ19,5Χ9,5 cm.

inv.no. 9109

Seated Girl, before 1947

terracotta, 17Χ19,5Χ9,5 cm.

inv.no. 9109

Seated Girl (or Thoughtful Girl), before 1947

terracotta, 20,5Χ8,5Χ13 cm.

inv.no. 9108

Seated Girl (or Thoughtful Girl), before 1947

terracotta, 20,5Χ8,5Χ13 cm.

inv.no. 9108

Seated Girl (or Thoughtful Girl), before 1947

terracotta, 20,5Χ8,5Χ13 cm.

inv.no. 9108

Seated Girl (or Thoughtful Girl), before 1947

terracotta, 20,5Χ8,5Χ13 cm.

inv.no. 9108

Seated Girl, before 1947

terracotta, 21Χ15Χ8,5 cm.

inv.no. 9228

Seated Girl, before 1947

terracotta, 20,5Χ8,5Χ13 cm.

inv.no. 9228

Seated Girl, before 1947

terracotta, 20,5Χ8,5Χ13 cm.

inv.no. 9228

Seated Girl, before 1947

terracotta, 20,5Χ8,5Χ13 cm.

inv.no. 9228

Girl with Water-Jar, ca. 1951

plaster, 147Χ53,5Χ32 cm.

inv. no. 9137

Girl with Water-Jar, ca. 1951

plaster, 147Χ53,5Χ32 cm.

inv. no. 9137

Girl with Water-Jar, ca. 1951

plaster, 147Χ53,5Χ32 cm.

inv. no. 9137

Girl with Water-Jar, ca. 1951

plaster, 147Χ53,5Χ32 cm.

inv. no. 9137

Girl with Dove, 1951

painted terracotta, 82Χ23,5Χ17,5 cm.

inv.no. 9119

Girl with Dove, 1951

painted terracotta, 82Χ23,5Χ17,5 cm.

inv.no. 9119

Girl with Dove, 1951

painted terracotta, 82Χ23,5Χ17,5 cm.

inv.no. 9119

Mother and Child, after 1950

painted terracotta, 21,5Χ11Χ13 cm.

inv. no. 9211

Mother and Child, after 1950

painted terracotta, 21,5Χ11Χ13 cm.

inv. no. 9211

Mother and Child, after 1950

painted terracotta, 21,5Χ11Χ13 cm.

inv. no. 9211

Mother and Child, 1952

terracotta, 42,5Χ30Χ19,5 cm.

inv.no. 9187

Mother and Child, 1952

terracotta, 42,5Χ30Χ19,5 cm.

inv.no. 9187

Mother and Child, 1952

terracotta, 42,5Χ30Χ19,5 cm.

inv.no. 9187

Moroccan Figure, 1952

terracotta, 18Χ17,5Χ9 cm.

inv.no. 9071

Moroccan Figure, 1952

terracotta, 18Χ17,5Χ9 cm.

inv.no. 9071

Moroccan Figure, 1952

terracotta, 17,5Χ14,5Χ9,5 cm.

inv.no. 9070

Moroccan Figure, 1952

terracotta, 17,5Χ14,5Χ9,5 cm.

inv.no. 9070

Moroccan Figures, 1954

terracotta, 51Χ30Χ14 cm.

inv.no 9208

Moroccan Figures, 1954

terracotta, 51Χ30Χ14 cm.

inv.no 9208

Moroccan Figures, 1954

terracotta, 51Χ30Χ14 cm.

inv.no 9208

Women of Luxor, 1955

bronze, 33Χ18Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 9090

Women of Luxor, 1955

bronze, 33Χ18Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 9090

Women of Egypt, 1955

bronze, 19X9,5X4 cm.

inv.no. 9087

Greek Shepherds, 1955

hammered iron, 53Χ30Χ20,5 cm.

inv.no. 9152

Standing Nude (Kaiti), 1930-1933

terracotta, 78Χ21,5Χ17 cm.

inv.no. 9246

Standing Nude (Kaiti), 1930-1933

terracotta, 78Χ21,5Χ17 cm.

inv.no. 9246

Standing Nude

terracotta, 28,5Χ23,5Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9247

Standing Nude

terracotta, 28,5Χ23,5Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9247

Bathing Woman, after 1945

terracotta, 21Χ9Χ11,5 cm.

inv.no 9076

Bathing Woman, after 1945

terracotta, 21Χ9Χ11,5 cm.

inv.no 9076

Bathing Woman, after 1945

terracotta, 21Χ9Χ11,5 cm.

inv.no 9076

Bathing Woman, after 1945

terracotta, 21Χ9Χ11,5 cm.

inv.no 9076

Bathing Woman, after 1945

terracotta, 21Χ9Χ11,5 cm.

inv.no 9076

Seated Nude, before 1947

terracotta, 22Χ13Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9115

Seated Nude, before 1947

terracotta, 22Χ13Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9115

Seated Nude, before 1947

terracotta, 22Χ13Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9115

Seated Nude, before 1947

terracotta, 22Χ13Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9115

Nude Seated, after 1940

terracotta, 52Χ61Χ32 cm.

inv.no. 9200

Nude, before 1947

terracotta, 24,5Χ16Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9075

Nude, before 1947

terracotta, 24,5Χ16Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9075

Nude, before 1947

terracotta, 24,5Χ16Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9075

Nude, before 1947

terracotta, 24,5Χ16Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9075

Nude, before 1947

terracotta, 24,5Χ16Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9075

Nude, after 1945

terracotta, 17,5Χ11,5Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9117

Nude, after 1945

terracotta, 17,5Χ11,5Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9117

Nude, after 1945

terracotta, 17,5Χ11,5Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9117

Nud,e after 1945

terracotta, 17,5Χ11,5Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9117

Nude, after 1945

terracotta, 17,5Χ11,5Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9117

Nude, after 1945

terracotta, 15Χ11Χ8 cm.

inv.no. 9116

Nude, after 1945

terracotta, 15Χ11Χ8 cm.

inv.no. 9116

Nude, after 1945

terracotta, 15Χ11Χ8 cm.

inv.no. 9116

Nude, after 1945

terracotta, 15Χ11Χ8 cm.

inv.no. 9116

Prostrate Nude, after 1947

bronze, 8Χ22Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9074

Prostrate Nude, after 1947

bronze, 8Χ22Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9074

Prostrate Nude, after 1947

bronze, 8Χ22Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9074

Mythological, Religious, Allegorical Themes

Alongside pottery, since her student years Frosso Efthymiadi also pursued sculpture, working on specific themes, such as animals, birds, figures and busts. Her choice of subjects and use of terracotta until the mid-1950s reflects her perception of the intended role and function of sculpture, which she describes in an interview to Dimis Apostolopoulosfor Ώρα τέχνης και επιστήμης (Art and Science Hour) radio show on December 16, 1954: «… My aim is not monumental sculpture but art that accompanies people in their everyday life – something I think is missing in Greece». Furthermore, terracotta sculpture is particularly well suited to the current perceptions about home decoration». Since the mid-1950s, she abandoned terracotta in favour of metal, forging by herself sheets or rods of brass and iron, which she then joined by welding or soldering. This technique she now used for all her works, including female figures, which developed from simple everyday presences and nudes into mythological, allegorical, or religious figures. Furthermore, the earlier realism was succeeded by a totally sketchy, suggestive rendering verging on abstraction; solid surfaces were penetrated by the void, which gradually became a key element in the compositions.

This thematic and stylistic evolution can be traced in works such as Sibylla, Sprite, Nymph, Lot’s Wife, Supplicants, Nikes. With the exceptions of Sibylla, with its balance of solid and void forms, of Suppliants and of Lot’s Wife, which is a magnification of a tiny shell into a solid marble volume to convey the static standing figure of the woman who became a pillar of salt, the rest of Efthymiadi’s works are composed of forged metal rods evoking the body by means of vacuum and are characterised by a strong rotational or impulsive forward motion. On the other hand, the sketches of Sibyl and Lot’s Wife, made of thin iron rods, which are the preliminary studies in space for the definitive works, provide a fuller picture of the creative process.

Pan with Baby Lamb, 1941

terracotta, 96Χ54Χ39 cm

inv. no. 9045

Charioteer, 1955

hammered brass , 23,5Χ27,5Χ8,5 cm.

inv.no. 9170

Charioteer, 1955

hammered brass , 23,5Χ27,5Χ8,5 cm.

inv.no. 9170

Centaur, after 1955

brass, 26Χ31Χ14 cm.

inv.no. 9174

Centaur, after 1955

brass, 26Χ31Χ14 cm.

inv.no. 9174

Female Centaur, 1955

brass, 11,5Χ8,5Χ3,5 cm.

inv.no. 9086

Supplicants, 1958

hammered iron, 92Χ42Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9150

Supplicants, 1958

hammered iron, 92Χ42Χ16 cm.

inv.no. 9150

Sibylla, 1958

hammered iron and copper, 98Χ54Χ37 cm.

inv.no 9091

Sibylla, 1958

hammered iron and copper, 98Χ54Χ37 cm.

inv.no 9091

Sibylla, 1958

hammered iron and copper, 98Χ54Χ37 cm.

inv.no 9091

Sibylla, 1958

iron, 94Χ56Χ35 cm.

inv.no 9091/α

Sprite, 1960

hammered brass, 140Χ82Χ58 cm.

inv.no 9158

Sprite, 1960

hammered brass, 140Χ82Χ58 cm.

inv.no 9158

Sprite, 1960

hammered brass, 140Χ82Χ58 cm.

inv.no 9158

Sprite, 1960

hammered brass, 140Χ82Χ58 cm.

inv.no 9158

Nymph, 1960

hammered brass, 138Χ67Χ43,6 cm.

inv.no 9051

Nymph, 1960

hammered brass, 138Χ67Χ43,6 cm.

inv.no 9051

Nymph, 1960

hammered brass, 138Χ67Χ43,6 cm.

inv.no 9051

Nymph, 1960

hammered brass, 138Χ67Χ43,6 cm.

inv.no 9051

Icarus, before 1965

iron, 66Χ85,5Χ34 cm.

inv.no. 9147/α

Icarus, before 1965

hammered brass, 62Χ82,5Χ36 cm.

inv.no. 9147

Minoan, before 1964

iron, copper, brass (hammered), 139Χ94Χ2,5cm.

inv.no 9183

Nike, 1960

hammered brass, 103,5Χ84Χ35,5 cm.

inv.no 9157

Nike, 1960

hammered brass, 103,5Χ84Χ35,5 cm.

inv.no 9157

Nike, 1960

hammered brass, 103,5Χ84Χ35,5 cm.

inv.no 9157

Nike, 1962

plaster, 107Χ80Χ25 cm.

inv.no 9156

Nike II, 1969

hammered brass, 170Χ90Χ57 cm.

inv.no 9165

Adam and Eve, 1955

bronze, 64,5Χ18,5Χ10 cm.

inv. no. 9139

Adam and Eve, 1955

bronze, 64,5Χ18,5Χ10 cm.

inv. no. 9139

Salome, 1958 or 1959

welded iron 130Χ89,5Χ55,5 cm.

inv.no 9149

Salome, 1958 or 1959

welded iron 130Χ89,5Χ55,5 cm.

inv.no 9149

Salome, 1958 or 1959

welded iron 130Χ89,5Χ55,5 cm.

inv.no 9149

Lot’s Wife, after 1962

iron, 167,5Χ33Χ27,5 cm.

inv.no. 9151/γ

Lot’s Wife, after 1962

iron, 167,5Χ33Χ27,5 cm.

inv.no. 9151/γ

Lot’s Wife, after 1962

iron, 167,5Χ33Χ27,5 cm.

inv.no. 9151/γ

Lot’s Wife, 1962

marble, 85Χ21Χ19 cm.

inv.no. 9151

Lot’s Wife, 1962

marble, 85Χ21Χ19 cm.

inv.no. 9151

Lot’s Wife, 1962

marble, 85Χ21Χ19 cm.

inv.no. 9151

Lot’s Wife, 1962

marble, 85Χ21Χ19 cm.

inv.no. 9151

Dance

Alongside pottery, since her student years Frosso Efthymiadi also pursued sculpture, working on specific themes, such as animals, birds, figures and busts. Her choice of subjects and use of terracotta until the mid-1950s reflects her perception of the intended role and function of sculpture, which she describes in an interview to Dimis Apostolopoulos for Ώρα τέχνης και επιστήμης (Art and Science Hour) radio show on December 16, 1954: «… My aim is not monumental sculpture but art that accompanies people in their everyday life – something I think is missing in Greece». Furthermore,«terracotta sculpture is particularly well-suited to the current perceptions about home decoration».

Female figures are among her most characteristic subjects, including compositions on the theme of dance, which preoccupied the artist from the 1940s to the 1960s, and in which we can follow her development from the realistic style of the early terracottas to abstract treatment by the mid-1950s. Thus, Dancer in hammered brass, dating from the 1960s, is a very abstract version of the terracotta Dancer from the 1940s. On the other hand, the hammered bronze Ballerina (1959) on display at the Panathenaea of Contemporary Sculpture exhibition on Filopappou  in 1965, swirling balanced on one leg, brilliantly combines solid and void forms, verging on abstraction. Moreover, it is the culmination of the evocation of fleeting whirling motion, which began around 1956, with a small-scale Dancer in bronze and continued with the small-scale Ballerina almost a year later.

In addition to the individual figure, dance preoccupied Frosso Efthymiadi also in terms of a team endeavour. Inspired by a Minoan composition of the New Palace period on Crete, she produced in 1955 two very stylised and abstract small-scale compositions titled Dance and Greek Dance, before arriving at a similar, though flat, large-scale composition.

Dancer, before 1947

terracotta, 27Χ13Χ9,5 cm.

inv.no. 9096

Dancer, before 1947

terracotta, 27Χ13Χ9,5 cm.

inv.no. 9096

Dancer, before 1947

terracotta, 27Χ13Χ9,5 cm.

inv.no. 9096

Dancer, c. 1956

bronze, 40,5Χ24Χ19 cm.

inv. no. 9092

Dancer, c. 1956

bronze, 40,5Χ24Χ19 cm.

inv. no. 9092

Dancer, c. 1956

bronze, 40,5Χ24Χ19 cm.

inv. no. 9092

Dancer, before 1965

hammered brass , 46,5Χ29,5Χ18 cm.

inv.no. 9160

Ballerina, 1959

iron, 129Χ70,5Χ75 cm.

inv.no 9155/α

Ballerina, 1959

iron, 129Χ70,5Χ75 cm.

inv.no 9155/α

Ballerina, 1959

hammered bronze, 150Χ72Χ50 cm.

inv.no 9155

Ballerina, 1959

hammered bronze, 150Χ72Χ50 cm.

inv.no 9155

Ballerina, 1959

hammered bronze, 150Χ72Χ50 cm.

inv.no 9155

Greek Dance, 1955

bronze, 35,5Χ30Χ27 cm.

inv.no. 9138

Dance, 1955

brass, 16Χ16Χ15,5 cm.

inv. no 9085

Dance, 1955

brass, 16Χ16Χ15,5 cm.

inv. no 9085

Dance, 1955

hammered brass, 109Χ149Χ104 cm.

inv. no 9048

Abstraction

Since her student years, Frosso Efthymiadi also pursued sculpture alongside ceramics, working on specific topics, such as animals, birds, figures and busts. Until her compositions of the early 1950s, she had been a realist, but then made a dramatic shift towards a very abstract direction, which, since 1958, led to the production of abstract compositions, too. Furthermore, since 1955 she had shifted her focus from working on terracotta to working almost exclusively with forging metal. Using mainly brass and iron, or metal rods, she created abstract compositions, often resembling linear drawings in space, drawing on biomorphic shapes, or constructivist models, as well as from life. Accordingly, Chinatown is apparently inspired by Chinese ideograms, Totem of the Depths evokes vegetal patterns and Endless Spiral is reminiscent of Vladimir Tatlin’s Monument for the Third International. Her Study in Space, one of only two works she made in marble, is an abstract version of sails full of wind, which she then transferred using forged brass rods as a linear drawing in space in Movement into Space. Frosso Efthymiadi’s series of abstract compositions ended around 1971, when she created Labyrinth, a two-dimensional geometric construction resulting from the combination of repeating patterns of small brass plates, which was to be her last work.

Chinatown, 1958

copper, 49Χ30Χ17 cm.

inv.no 9175

Chinatown, 1958

copper, 49Χ30Χ17 cm.

inv.no 9175

Geometric Study, after 1960

hammered iron, 46Χ17Χ16,5 cm.

inv. no. 9159

Geometric Study, after 1960

hammered iron, 46Χ17Χ16,5 cm.

inv. no. 9159

Geometric Study, after 1960

hammered iron, 46Χ17Χ16,5 cm.

inv. no. 9159

Geometric Study, after 1960

hammered iron, 46Χ17Χ16,5 cm.

inv. no. 9159

Geometric Study, after 1960

hammered iron, 39Χ26Χ14 cm.

inv. no. 9166

Movement into Space, 1960

hammered brass, 90Χ70Χ28 cm.

inv.no. 9161

Study in Space, 1964

marble, height 46 cm.

inv.no. 9162

Endless Spiral, after 1960

hammered brass, 132X19X18 cm.

inv. no. 9186

Endless Spiral, after 1960

hammered brass, 132X19X18 cm.

inv. no. 9186

Totem of the Depths, 1962

hammered brass, 330Χ56,5Χ55,5 cm.

inv.no 9052

Dialogue, 1963

iron, 35Χ30Χ17,5 cm., 29Χ23,5Χ11 cm.

inv.no. 9167/α

Dialogue (study for stage scenery), 1963

iron, copper, brass , 35,5Χ41,5Χ18,5 cm.

inv.no. 9167

Dialogue (study for stage scenery), 1963

iron, copper, brass , 35,5Χ41,5Χ18,5 cm.

inv.no. 9167

Sound or Musical Instrument, after 1960

hammered brass , 79Χ49Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 9171

Sound or Musical Instrument, after 1960

hammered brass , 79Χ49Χ12 cm.

inv.no. 9171

Labyrinth, before 1971

brass and Plexiglass, 150 Χ68Χ1 cm.

inv.no. 9134

Medals

Frosso Efthymiadi’s studio also contained some medal models for the City of Athens. It is likely that they were commissioned by Kostas Kotzias, who had served as mayor of Athens in 1934-1936 and again in 1951, as he had also commissioned some works in terracotta for outdoor installation in Athens. These medals come in different shapes, yet carry similar images: the cross on one side and the head of the city’s patron, the goddess Athena, on the other; in other words, a version of the emblem of the municipality to date.

Athena (medal for the Municipality of Athens)

terracotta, diam. 25 cm., depth 3 cm.

inv. no. 9229

Medal for the Municipality of Athens

painted plaster, 29Χ27Χ3 cm.

inv.no 9242/α

Medal for the Municipality of Athens

painted plaster, 29Χ27Χ2,5 cm.

inv.no 9242/β

Medal for the Municipality of Athens

painted plaster, 26Χ23,5Χ2,5 cm.

inv.no 9240/α

Medal for the Municipality of Athens

painted plaster, 29Χ23,5Χ2,5 cm.

inv.no 9240/β

Medal for the Municipality of Athens

painted plaster, 28Χ25,5Χ3,5 cm.

inv.no 9241/α

Medal for the Municipality of Athens

painted plaster, 27,5Χ25Χ3 cm.

inv.no 9241/β

Medal for the Municipality of Athens

painted paster, 27,5Χ26Χ3 cm.

inv.no 9244

Timeline

Navigate to the thumbnails and see the evolution of the project Frosso Efthymiadi per decade.

View the development of her work by clicking here.

1930-1940

Vase with Horses in Relief, 1930-1933
glazed terracotta, 30Χ27Χ27 cm.
inv. no. 11695

1930-1940

Baby Deer, 1930-1933
glazed terracotta 16,5Χ21Χ12 cm.
inv. no. 11701

1930-1940

Pigeon, 1930-1933
terracotta, 9Χ13,5Χ8,5 cm.
inv. no. 9060

1930-1940

Standing Nude (Kaiti), 1930-1933
terracotta, 78Χ21,5Χ17 cm.
inv. no. 9246

1930-1940

Decorative plate with Cock, c. 1932
painted terracotta, diam. 15 cm
inv. no. 11698

1930-1940

Decorative plate with Mermaid, c. 1932
painted terracotta, diam. 20 cm
inv. no. 11699